Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) or a total knee replacement is a surgical procedure where a diseased knee joint is replaced with artificial material. The femor (thighbone) is cut to allow placement of a metal implant to recreate the femoral condyles. The tibial plateau, on the tibia (chin bone) is cut straight to allow placement of the implant called a tibial baseplate to hold the meniscus replacement. A plastic insert is placed into the tibial baseplate that is anatomically similar to the height of the patients knee. The final step in the process is to cut the posterior side of the patella (knee cap). A plastic “button” or patella insert is placed to allow the patella and ligaments to track correctly during flex and motion of the knee joint.
Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) or a total hip replacement is a surgical procedure where a diseased hip joint is replaced with artificial material. The damaged femoral head is removed and replaced with a metal stem that is placed into the hollow center of the femur. The femoral stem may be either cemented or "press fit" into the bone. A metal or ceramic ball is placed on the upper part of the stem. This ball replaces the damaged femoral head that was removed. The damaged cartilage surface of the socket (acetabulum) is removed and replaced with a metal socket. Screws or cement are sometimes used to hold the socket in place. A plastic, ceramic, or metal spacer is inserted between the new ball and the socket to allow for a smooth gliding surface.
Joint Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure where a small pin hole incision will be made to insert the arthroscope. Several other pin hole incisions may be made to see other areas of the joint or insert other instruments. Corrective surgery is performed with specially designed instruments that are inserted into the joint through the pinhole incisions. Through use of these instruments, resurfacing of the joint or smoothing of the joint is obtained. The surgeon may also need to remove foreign debris or bone spurs and can inspect the joint with the arthroscope to further diagnose problem areas or disease.
Labrum repair surgery usually accompanies an arthroscopy procedure and can be referred to as a SLAP surgery, Superior Labrum anterior and posterior. If the injury is confined to the labrum itself, without involving the biceps tendon attachment. The surgeon will remove the torn flap and correct any other associated problems through arthroscopy. If the tear extends into the biceps tendon or if the tendon is detached, the result is an unstable biceps attachment. Your doctor will need to repair and reattach the tendon, using suture anchoring devices. There are several options for Suture Anchors today, PEEK and Titanium are the most common material, but they also come in threaded and pressfit. The surgeon will drill a pilot hole for the anchor and screw the threaded anchor into the hole. They can then secure the tendon ligament with the sutures back to the bone structure.
l. Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) is a surgical procedure to fix a broken bone. There are many types of ORIF’s that can be performed due to the numerous bone in the anatomy.
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